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Lehn j.-m. supramolecular chemistry concepts and perspectives vch weinheim 1995
Supramolecular chemistry is a central theme not only in chemistry, but in neighboring disciplines including physics and the biological sciences.
A step beyond consists in devising systems of higher complexity that operate in multimode fashion through the implementation of several codes within the same overall program, resulting in multiple self-organization processes ( 3, 23 ).
Thus, supramolecular chemistry is a constitutional convert number into words in php dynamic chemistry (CDC).
Whereas self-assembly may be taken as simple collection and aggregation of components into a confined entity, we shall here consider self-organization as the spontaneous but information-directed generation of organized functional structures in equilibrium conditions.DOI.1002/adma., format Available, full text: PDF, copyright 1996 Verlag GmbH.Supramolecular preorganization also has provided new ways and means to chemical synthesis ( 1, 7 9 ).Supramolecular Chemistry and the Information Paradigm.However, in the long run, the goal is complex organization and collective operation rather than smaller size and individual addressing.It is, by essence, of supramolecular nature because it is determined by interaction with an external entity.These features give access to higher levels of behavior such as healing, adaptability, response to external stimulants (heat, light, additives, etc.) by sequences.The reversibility of the associations allows a continuous change in constitution, which may be either internal, by rearrangement of the components with modification of the connectivity between them, or external, by exchange, incorporation, or extrusion of components, therefore conferring constitutional plasticity to the system.
The first is that of molecular recognition and its corollaries, supramolecular reactivity, catalysis, and transport; it relies on design and preorganization and implements information storage and processing.
When the reactions occur within the self-assembled entity, they amount to self-transformation and may in particular result in replication and self-replication processes ( 39, 54, 55 ).
The species and properties defining a given level of complexity result from and may be explained on the basis of the species belonging to the level below and of their multibody interaction,.g., supramolecular entities in terms of molecules, cells in terms of supramolecular entities.
Fabricating, manipulating, and implementing nano-size chemical entities offer a wide range of potential applications of great value for science and technology ( 70 ).
The inclusion of dissipative, nonequilibrium processes, as present in the living world, constitutes a major goal and challenge for the future ( 4 6 ).
An approach making use of specifically designed non-natural components could provide higher diversity, better resistance to fatigue, and more compact/smaller size.
At each level of increasing complexity novel features emerge that do not exist at lower levels, which are deducible from but not reducible to those of lower levels.Supramolecular chemistry has first relied on preorganization for the design of molecular receptors effecting molecular recognition, catalysis, and transport processes ( 1, 2 ).Multiple processing capacity represents a further step in the design of programmed chemical systems of increasing complexity capable of producing a variety of more and more complex architectures as outputs.This essay therefore will not be extensively documented (numerous reviews and books are available) but rather outline some conjectures for the future, mainly based on, illustrated by, and extrapolated from work performed in the author's laboratories.Complexity implies and results from multiplicity of components, interaction between them and integration.e., correlation, coupling, and feedback ( 1 ).The process bears relation to the implementation of combinatorial chemistry in its dynamic version (see below).Three approaches to these areas may be considered.Supramolecular chemistry may thus be expected to have a strong impact on materials science by means of the explicit manipulation of the noncovalent forces that hold the constituents together.Programmed (Supra)Molecular Systems from Structure to Information.Topics include: - molecular recognition - catalysis and transport processes - molecular and supramolecular devices - self-processes, by placing the basic concepts into a broader perspective, the author succeeds in inspiring, stimulating and challenging the creative imagination of his reader.